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A skeleton colony was left behind which was never seen again. A further attempt to land new colonists was undertaken in which again set off from Plymouth. But these mysteriously disappeared and were never seen again. The Spanish threat meant that all ships were forbidden from straying too far from England's shores lest they were needed to defend the island fromt he Spanish.

When a relief ship was sent after the Spanish Armada had been defeated the mystery of the fate of the Roanoke colony only deepened. They had been told to mark a maltese cross if they had to leave under duress, but no cross was found. Poor weather forced the relief ships to leave and nothing more was heard of the Roanoke colonists. The Stuarts Plymouth Map, Plymouth had become a renowned base for exploration and for maritime endeavour thanks to the exploits of sailors like Drake, Hawkins and Raleigh.

In recognition of its growing importance it had been awarded a new charter by Queen Elizabeth in her final years. During Elizabeth's reign, Plymouth had been transformed into a significant port known by friends and enemies alike. The coming Seventeenth Century hinted at greater prospects yet for the traders and mariners as England sought to expand its reach across the Atlantic and to take advantage of the prospects identified by Tudor sailors like Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh.

Plymouth was both the key to defending the approaches to England, but it was also the natural springboard from which to begin England's imperial adventures. Plymouth had one of the very first ports to take advantage of the Trans-Atlantic trade in cod that was generated by John Cabot's discovery of massive fish stocks off the coast of the New World at 'Newfoundland'. A fishing fleet regularly set off from Plymouth across the Atlantic where they would fill their holds with fish and then come back to Plymouth to sell them.

The monarchs may have been disappointed not to find the gold, silver and spices that the Portuguese and Spanish seemed to be discovering for themselves through their own voyages of exploration, but excellent fishing grounds had tangible benefits for local fishermen and the communities that bought their fish.

For some time, these West Country men attempted to keep the source of their fishing grounds secret, but when their location became widely known a Plymouth Company was set up to lobby for Royal protection. They asked the new Stuart king James I to issue a Royal Charter giving them rights and privileges that they could use to defend their commercial interests.

In return they would pay the King for the license to exploit the lands and resources within the areas they claimed. Plymouth Company of Merchants Plymouth Company Map The Plymouth Company of Merchants represented an early joint stock company attempt at colonisation organised and funded from entrepreneurs and mariners in Plymouth. Also known as the Plymouth Adventurers, they petitioned the new Stuart King James I to grant them a charter in order to establish colonies in the New World.

As far as James was concerned, he seemed to be getting something for nothing. By selling charters to establish lands on the other side of the Atlantic, he could raise money for no outlay. Furthermore, he was not beholden to help or protect the fledgling colonies in any way. In effect, the company took all the risks but asked only for the legal right in English law to colonise the lands and to prevent other rival English companies from impinging on their exploits.

Other companies included the Virginia Company and the London Company. The Plymouth Company was given permission to establish colonies between the 38th and 45th parallel of the North American coastline. However, they underestimated the costs of resupplying the new colony and the colonists found it difficult to thrive in the alien wilderness.

Furthermore, they antagonised local Indian tribes by abducting some of them and taking them back to England as trophies to show to the curious and to justify their endeavour. The exploit only lasted a year before the hungry and desperate colonists returned to England on ships which had arrived to resupply them.

Without a colony, there was no income stream for the company but that did not stop further attempts to establish colonies in collaboration with the London Company in However, by , the Company was liquidated. The following year a new charter was granted to a new company called the Plymouth Council for New England which had many of the same investors but was a separate legal entity in its own right. King James The newly arrived Scottish King James provided opportunities to Plymouth through supporting exploration and overseas commercial activity.

Yet, he also provided the seeds of distrust and undermined his own authority to many in the realm and particularly in Plymouth. Local privateers were dismayed when James ended the almost constant state of war between England and Spain in This meant that Plymouth's privateers could no longer gain permission from their monarch to raid Spanish ships, ports and coastline with impunity.

Rather, they were arrested and fined or imprisoned for disturbing the new peace treaties. Apart from the effect on patriotic feelings, this had a devastating effect on Plymouth's economy which had long benefitted from the booty and prizes coming into its port. The money earned by the mariners was often reinvested back into the port of Plymouth or in hiring new crews for further expeditions.

Peace with Spain did not benefit Plymouth. Further ill-feeling towards the new Royal family was engendered with the treatment of local hero Sir Walter Raleigh. On coming to the throne, James had had Raleigh arrested under suspicion of having plotted to keep James from taking over from Elizabeth. He spent the next decade under arrest before convincing the King that he could provide his monarch with one last service by discovering El Dorado. Raleigh set off from Plymouth with seven ships in to the area of present day Guiana and Venezuela in a forlorn attempt to discover its location.

He believed that Spanish officials in the area might have better intelligence on its location and attacked one of their provincial towns seeking aid in their endeavour. This was to be Raleigh's final undoing - along with failing to find the fabled lost city of Gold! The Spanish ambassador to James implored the king to have this man executed for attacking Spanish possessions in light of the peace that now existed between the two nations.

He was arrested upon his return to Plymouth in He was taken to London where he was given a show trial where it was claimed that he was trying to provoke war between England and Spain. He was executed in October To the people of Plymouth, his execution was a dreadful betrayal of a local son who had done so much to further the port's fortunes.

It engendered a growing tension between the inhabitants of Plymouth and their monarch. During Tudor times, Plymouth had been a most loyal town to the Crown. This would not be the case during the reign of the Stuarts. The Mayflower Although the Mayflower colonists originally came from the East of England via Holland , they had a brief but important interlude in Plymouth that greatly impressed their religious sensibilities.

Originally they had settled in Holland but the unstable political situation there made them consider an alternative. The pilgrims attempted to gain permission from the London Company of Merchants but negotiations stalled.

They were informed that a new Plymouth Council for New England was to be formed and attempted to gain permission from them to form a colony in their lands. The two ships travelled down the Channel before they had to put in at Dartmouth due to leaks on the Speedwell. At Plymouth, it was realised that the Speedwell would not make the journey across the Atlantic and so the crew and stores were all moved to the Mayflower. During this period in Plymouth the pilgrims were impressed by the puritanical strength of feeling in the port.

A generation later, the puritans of Plymouth would stand up to James' son, Charles for the duration of the English Civil War. At this point in time, the Mayflower pilgrims considered that if all of England was as devout as Plymouth there would be no reason to leave the mother country. It was for this reason that they decided to take the name of Plymouth to their first colony in the hope that the religious feeling of this Old World port might be replicated in the New World.

As mentioned above, the Mayflower sailed with the understanding that it would come under the charter of the Plymouth Council for New England under the guidance of Ferdinando Gorges but the formalities had not yet been finalised before they departed. It did not help that the Mayflower drifted far further north than had been anticipated, eventually arriving at Cape Cod. As there was no charter in place, the pilgrims established their own legal framework known as the Mayflower Compact.

They named their new settlement Plymouth Colony which despite some early difficulties, ultimately managed to survive and eventually thrive in the New World. It offered an alternative model from the Virginia model which had been based on tobacco cultivation and aggressive expansion at the expense of local Indian tribes. The Plymouth Colony was based on hardy Protestant ethics and ideas of self-improvement through hard work and self sacrifice.

Both of these models fed into the American character but in competing and often contradictory ways. The Plymouth Council for New England eventually controlled the area around the Plymouth Colony established by the Mayflower settlers but the Plymouth Colony continued to use its own 'Mayflower Compact' for its own governance. The Plymouth Council for New England saw much of its land divided and given to rival companies and so moved its focus further north to Maine before finally surrendering its charter in Basically, the colonies required a great deal of money to become established, but being agrarian communities they did not generate vast amounts of money or products of high value to sell back in England unlike those in Virginia.

The New England colonies were becoming self-sufficient, which was an achievement in itself, but they were not making their investors back in England particularly rich. Investors would soon turn their attention to the more profitable sugar and cotton plantations sprouting up in the Caribbean and the South of America.

These plantations required vast quantities of labour which were supplied by indentured servants at first but chattel slaves later. They would prove to become a very different model of colony to those formed by the pious religious pioneers who headed towards New England. He was a half brother of Walter Raleigh and a kinsman of Humphrey Gilbert. He was a major shareholder in the Plymouth Company and as such he brought back three captured Native Americans by Captain George Weymouth in He lived in Budshead Manor in modern day Ernesettle its ruins can still be seen there.

In , Gorges received a land patent from King James in order to settle the Province of Maine between the Merrimack and Kennebec rivers in conjunction with his colleague John Mason. It has to be said that the pious and religious settlers already in New England resented this feudal meddling in their affairs especially from a Stuart King from whom they had left England in order to avoid due to their suspicions over his religious sensibilities. An attempt to settle Maine by Gorges' agent, Captain Christopher Levett, ultimately failed and the Captain died en route back to England in The Gorges family tried once more to resurrect their plans for settlement later that decade and in King Charles I granted a new and enhanced Charter.

Alas, the unfolding Civil War would disrupt and deliver a fatal blow to these plans. Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth undermined the Gorges' claims and effectively neutralised their control. The restoration of the monarchy in seemed to offer a new opportunity but when most of New England erupted into King Philip's War in , economics went out of the window as the settlers needed food and supplies just to survive. Eventually the Gorges family sold any remaining rights to settle in Maine to the Massachussets colony in It is intriguing to consider that had the English Civil War not occurred to upset the Gorges family's claims, the Americas may have had 14 colonies and not the 13 that are still represented on the Stars and Stripes flag at the time of the American Revolution.

Charles I was the next to see a failed expedition depart from Plymouth, although this one at least set sail. Charles had married into the French Royal Family and was switching Stuart support away from Spain towards France, which still did little to please the people of Plymouth who generally regarded the French with equal contempt. Charles ordered the taking of Cadiz in an attempt to resurrect Drake's bold attempt from and neutralise Spanish shipping.

This time though the logistics of the operation were deplorable. Ninety ships were assembled in Plymouth Sound where 10, soldiers boarded the waiting ships. The King had given the responsibility for victualling and preparing the fleet to James Bagge who lived at Saltram House. Bagge was notoriously corrupt and provided sub-standard food and equipment to the fleet. The fleet set sail but returned just two days later totally disorganised. A second attempt to launch the fleet was undertaken a week later which did at least get to Cadiz, but the military equipment was found to be of very poor quality and the hoped for Spanish Treasure Fleet was nowhere to be found.

The sailors and soldiers got drunk through ill discipline and poor leadership and the whole sorry expedition returned to Plymouth empty handed. Unfortunately, some of the soldiers had contracted the plague whilst in Spain and in their weakened state from poor diet and supplies it became rife throughout the returning fleet. On returning to Plymouth they returned to local billets and spread the disease with them.

Plymouth lost a quarter of its population and ceased to accept or trade with ships whilst the disease ravaged the population. Plymouth's relationship to Charles did not get off to a happy start and many longed for the days of Elizabeth and of better fortune for the town.

This was in response to their repeated pirate raids along the Southern coast of England including the waters around Plymouth. Between and , for instance, the Admiralty recorded that vessels had been attacked with the vast majority of these occurring in and around Devon and Cornwall.

The fishing fleet going to and from Newfoundland was particularly vulnerable especially as the Corsairs valued the skills of mariners to help replenish their own crew needs. These pirates ransacked local fishing boats and even came ashore to seize local people and take them back to North Africa or to the Ottoman Empire with a view to selling them into captivity or ransoming them back to the English Crown.

Sir Ferdinando Gorges had had enough and so declared war on the Turks unilaterally in his role as Guardian and Protector of Plymouth - what he did not appreciate is that the Corsairs paid little attention to Ottoman rules or instructions and operated as private fiefdoms mainly from the ports of Sale, Tripoli and Algiers.

Nevertheless, Gorges' plan was to assemble a large fleet in Plymouth in under the command of Sir Robert Mansell and Sir Richard Hawkins and to sail to the North African coast to attack the Corsair bases. However, the fleet did not set sail due to a combination of supply and monetary problems. Gorges could not raise enough money locally and had hoped that the King would provide the balance.

However, James I was ambivalent towards the whole expedition and was more concerned with the state of the national budget and the costs of waging a long distance war against an Empire that had little contact with England and for which there would be little treasure gained. So in the end, this expedition never set sail. Just five years later in the West Country was on the receiving end of the most audacious Corsair pirate fleet yet.

In fact there were two fleets, one operated along the Southern coastline and sacked Mount's Bay, Looe and Penzance whilst a second fleet along the Northern coastline captured Lundy Island hoisted their crescent flag there and used it as a base to raid Padstow and Ilfracombe amongst other ports. The Plymouth Naval Commander, Sir James Bagge, implored the King to send more ships to help defend the coastline and local fishermen from Corsair predation. Official reaction was too slow though and hundreds of Cornish and Devonians were carried off into slavery before any English ships could respond.

English patience began to run out and after disappointing negotiations that dragged on for years about freeing Christian slaves, Charles I ultimately allowed a naval expedition to set off for the Corsair base in Sale in North Africa in At last they had some success and freed hundreds of captives; the largest contingent of freed slaves were found to be from Plymouth - 37 of them - most of whom had been mariners.

Despite this success, the Corsairs continued to threaten the coastline. The Barbary Corsairs were a multi-headed hydra operating out of Sale, Tripoli and Algiers and quite independently from one another and so it was difficult to know who to entreat with and a deal struck with one group would have no effect on the others.

Corsair activity continued throughout the English Civil War years into the Commonwealth era and into the Restoration beyond. Insurance premiums rose for mariners and communities throughout the Westcountry. Charles II's Navy sent a contingent to sack Tripoli in and impose a cessation from that particular centre, but although strikes to the coast of England fell away, mariners had to be wary of attack for many more years yet.

There were still isolated attacks from the Corsairs until as late as the Napoleonic Wars but increasingly they confined their activities to the Mediterranean. Plymouth had long been a puritanical stronghold but King Charles' attempts to get around raising money without Parliament through issuing a 'Ship Tax' sorely tested the loyalties of all those who lived and worked in ports. The people of Plymouth were tired of subsidising a king who they felt was too Catholic minded within his Anglican beliefs and too friendly towards England's traditional enemies of France and Spain, who were Catholic to boot.

Plymouth's elders were also unimpressed when the King intervened to veto two of their chosen puritanical candidates for the post of vicar of St. An Anglican and staunch Royalist was chosen for the people of Plymouth but the elders and laity did not appreciate this royal meddling in their spiritual affairs. Mount Batten When war broke out in Plymouth was a parliamentarian bastion in a sea of Royalist support.

Nearly all of Cornwall and Devon had declared for the Royalist cause and it seemed as if Plymouth's situation was precarious and likely to be short lived. Repeated attempts to capture the port were made by the Royalists but the fact that it could rely on Parliamentarian ascendency in the naval war meant that it could remain supplied and supported for the entire duration of the war.

The Royalists controlled Mount Edgcumbe where they set up batteries of cannons and later gained control of Oreston and the Stamford area to prevent ships entering directly into Sutton harbour. The people of Plymouth depended upon control of Drake's Island to allow ships to come in under the cover of darkness and unload supplies at Millbay before disappearing before daylight in feats of remarkable seamanship.

The town came closest to falling on December 3rd when the army of Prince Maurice breached the outer walls only for the inhabitants of the walled town to sally out and defeat the advancing Royalist Army at Freedom Fields. Ham House St.

Budeaux being so far out from the old Plymouth boundaries was very much in Royalist territory. The Royalists had already assaulted Plymouth several times but had been beaten back by the well organised and determined defenders. The Royalists needed their troops in other campaigns and so Prince Maurice left Plymouth with the bulk of his troops at the end of but leaving strong orders to local commanders to ensure that no supplies should be able to reach the Plymouth garrison.

As St. Budeaux covered the Northern approaches to Plymouth its commanding position was useful in monitoring the surrounding countryside and the River Tamar. In the Spring of , Parliamentarian forces believed an important local Royalist commander called Richard Grenville was billeted with soldiers in the grounds of St.

Budeaux Church. There is a mound and ditch on the East side of the church which is believed to be the Civil War defences thrown up by the Royalists stationed at this high point. It is still very clear and would have had good fields of fire towards Plymouth but also with a good escape route down to the river. The force split as it approached to try and head off any Royalist reinforcements from the West although much of the cavalry got lost in this manoeuvre.

The main force was spotted en route and sporadic skirmishing broke out. The experience and organisation of the Parliamentarians soon became apparent. They formed battle line and marched on the church. Some of the Cavalier defenders were overawed and abandoned their positions. Others took up positions along the bank and hedges and some barricaded themselves within the church itself.

The ordered volleys of the Parliamentarians weakened their resolve and those who could not flee surrendered. The Plymouth soldiers were disappointed not to capture the Royalist Commander but could find solace in gathering horses, muskets, powder and food to take back into the besieged port.

The house was owned by Yeoman Hele who had been a strong Royalist supporter and whose house had been garrisoned with Royalist troops since the very outbreak of the war and had also been used by Prince Maurice for his previous attack on Plymouth. The house was close to the vital communication lines moving North out of the town on the ancient byway which we now call Tavistock Road. It was also close to Plymouth Leat which the Royalists dammed up to deny its precious water getting to the Parliamentarian garrison in Plymouth.

Significant events in Cornwall had brought the war to the walls of Plymouth once more. The Earl of Essex marched a large Parliamentarian Army into Cornwall in the summer of to try and finish off Royalist support in the Westcountry once and for all. However, he was trapped by a Royal Army which followed him down to Lostwithiel. Annoyingly for Plymouth, many of its troops had been sent to join with Earl of Essex and were subsequently lost in the debacle that saw some Parliamentarians surrender and many more killed in the disastrous battle.

Some troops did escape including an embarrassed Earl of Essex who rather sheepishly took a fishing boat from Fowey to Plymouth. A victorious King Charles I found himself only days away from a denuded Plymouth. Frantically, the Parliamentarian defenders rounded up everyone they could, fixed up their forts and walls and took sailors off any ships to man the lines and brace for a fresh Royalist assault. They took about a week for King Charles to get to Widey Court with his victorious army which camped around Hartley and Mannamead.

The poor trumpeter chosen for the job was duly thrown in prison for a night and told that the next time he was seen in Plymouth he would be hanged! The Royalist army then pushed back Parliamentarian picquets down over Mutley Plain and set up an artillery line along Seymour Road.

When it came, though, the main attack went down Hyde Park towards Pennycomequick Fort which was only fought off when troops were moved from other Parliamentarian forts as they realised that the King would not attack them elsewhere. The King nonchalantly watched the fighting from about where Ford Cemetery is now.

Despite massively outnumbering the Parliamentarians, the fighting was markedly low level although it did endure for five days. However, to his credit, Robartes never hesitated and revealed the secret communication immediately and scoffed openly at the offer. Plymouth would survive and an impatient King Charles I took his army and marched back up the country leaving a much smaller garrison to besiege the town.

As the war turned against the King, Widey House became the scene of almost daily skirmishing as Parliamentarian patrols kept probing out of the town and looking for booty and livestock to bring back in to the garrison. Budeaux Church was in the winter of that year though as it was becoming clear that the Royalist cause was faltering and after so many troops had been withdrawn from the siege. A Parliamentarian column probed Northwards towards the church where it came across a force of Cavaliers camped in and around the church.

They were offered the opportunity to surrender but refused. Parliamentarian forces formed out to the South and West of the church and assaulted it directly. The battle raged for over an hour and a half in which time the church was badly damaged by musket and cannon balls. The superior numbers of Parliamentarians saw them advance steadily.

Eventually they rushed the church building itself at which point the desperate defenders surrendered. Casualties had been high on both sides and included a decorated and well respected Parliamentarian officer by the name of Major Haines. The Parliamentarians of Plymouth found themselves on the winning side! The siege was not raised until when General Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell himself entered the town to great fanfare and rejoicing.

A gun salute was fired in honour of their visit. They were both very impressed at the extent of the defences and the resolve of the people of Plymouth to have withstood such privation and danger for four years. It was estimated that 8, people died in the campaign to preserve Plymouth for the Parliamentarian cause which did not include those who died fighting on behalf of the Royalists.

The war had some significant economic and imperial related effects for the people of Plymouth. Firstly, Plymouth had long been the principle port to supply the colonists of North America with their goods and especially fish. However, the length of the war had encouraged these colonists to provide for themselves and they had constructed their own fishing fleets and trading vessels in response to the drop off in trade from the mother country.

The colonists had also turned to trading with other European powers, notably the Dutch. To try and counter this threat, Cromwell's new government issued a Navigation Act in which banned English colonists from trading with any ships except English ones.

In the short term this effect had the result of restoring some of the lost trade but in general it just meant that the colonists determined to build up their own fleets and ships to get around this restriction. Additionally, the Acts led to war with the Dutch from to This was largely a naval war that took place at the Eastern end of the Channel, but it did have the effect of restoring ship building activity and in supplying vessels for their military campaigns.

A war with Spain also helped rekindle fortunes in Plymouth. The Parliamentarians had become seasoned warriors thanks to the English Civil War and did much to reverse the losses of the Stuarts. Cromwell was also keen to reassert Parliamentarian control in the colonies of the Caribbean and North America which had felt detached enough to retain their loyalty to either side. Expeditions were sent out to remind any rebellious governors or local officials of who actually won the war and who was now in charge.

Plymouth's maritime credentials appeared to be rising with the ambitions of the new power. Unfortunately, the finances of the Commonwealth could not keep up with the expenditure required to see through these ambitions.

Consequently, many crews and mariners failed to be paid and resentment grew against Cromwell's regime in its dying days. There was also great anxiety about what form of government would replace Cromwell upon his death. Jews had been exiled from England in by Edward I. By a strange coincidence, Plymouth had its first recorded mention as a fishing community at almost exactly the same time in Jews had been seafarers and navigators throughout the Mediterranean for many centuries.

It seems as if it was through their seafaring skills that Jews began to return to England, all be it in very small numbers. The first recorded communities of Jews occurred in the ports of Plymouth, Portsmouth and Chatham. It is no surprise that Sir Francis Drake hired a jewish navigator, who went by the moniker 'Moses the Jew', on his circumnavigation of the world.

What is interesting is that the address given for Moses the Jew was The Barbican, Plymouth suggesting that Jews were already established in the port. Jews were not officially welcomed into the country until the time of Oliver Cromwell who encouraged their return. During the time of the thirty years war, Jews tended to move away from the Catholic areas towards the Protestant areas of Northern Europe where there was more toleration for their beliefs.

Once again, Plymouth's identification with the parliamentarian cause, its seafaring tradition and its cosmopolitan nature made Plymouth a natural destination for Jews wishing to come to England. Their numbers were always small but were swelled in the 18th Century with the arrival of German and Dutch Ashkenazi Jews especially during the War of Austrian Succession. Some Jews were concerned about Catholic inroads into Germany and into the Low Countries and sought the relative security of Britain.

The Jews who settled in Plymouth funded the building of the Plymouth Synagogue which was opened in It is the oldest Ashkenazi Synagogue in the English speaking world. Plymouth's Black Community Being a port, Plymouth would have been far more accustomed to seeing non-Caucasian faces than most other towns in England. Ships often needed muscle power and did not really care where it came from. If they needed replacement crew whilst in the Caribbean or off the coast of Africa then necessary muscle power would be requisitioned one way or another.

There would have been churnage as Plymothians put ashore in obscure ports around the World and people from all over the World may have found themselves ashore in Plymouth at one time or another. We know for a fact that at least two Black men were buried in Plymouth in Elizabethan times. Intriguingly there is also mention of a baptismal record for 'Helene, daughter of Christian the negro svant to Richard Sheere, the supposed father binge Cuthbert Holman, illeg.

Andrew's Church recorded another baptism of 'Susan, daughter of a Blackamoore'. Presumably, there were far more black people in Plymouth who slipped by the official channels without leaving a trace. Most were probably seamen who may have stayed in the town only briefly before finding a position on a ship out of the port. Or perhaps, they wished to remain anonymous assuming that they would not be made to feel welcome by authorities who might not wish to take responsibility for people born so far outside of the parishes of Plymouth.

The language of the parish records refers to terms which make uncomfortable reading to a modern audience but were very much regarded as purely descriptive rather than derogatory terms within the culture of the time. In general, 'neyger' or 'negro' referred to people from Africa or the descendents of African slaves from the Caribbean whilst the terms 'Moor' or 'Tawny' referred to Arabs or Indians from the New World.

Confusingly, 'The term 'Black a Moor' is believed to refer to black Africans who lived amongst a white population but who married into that local population and produced children of mixed parentage. The exploits of John Hawkins notwithstanding, Plymouth was never really a major player in the slave trade which was operated mainly out of Bristol and Liverpool.

Consequently, Plymouth may not have built up the same kind of prejudices against black sailors and workers that almost certainly was a byproduct of the majority of those who worked within the slave trade system. Plymouth was to become primarily a military port and the Navy itself was a remarkably colour blind institution for the time.

Although it should be said that conditions on board warships were brutal for all the lower ranks - of whatever skin colour. Paintings of the ships of the Napoleonic Wars often include the presence of black sailors even if they are often seen more to the background. It is safe to assume that many of these sailors would have put ashore in Plymouth at some point or other.

It should be remembered that it was not just black Africans who would have appeared in Plymouth. Explorers to the New World keenly brought back native Americans to show off to investors and the elite. An excellent example of this is the arrival of Pocahontas in Plymouth in as the wife of John Rolfe.

Later, there would also be travellers and passengers arriving from Asia who would disembark in Plymouth before travelling on to London or other commercial centres. Plymouth was one of the few places in England that a non-white person was not a totally unheard of event and somewhere that skin colour would not be regarded as a major cause for concern.

Mariners generally saluted the skill of fellow mariners whilst dignitaries and visitors were often the guests of important nobles who were bringing them ashore in Plymouth in a semi-diplomatic capacity and so were accorded the necessary decorum and respect. The Restoration Plymouth Citadel In general, the people of Plymouth were wary of the idea of the return of the Stuarts to the throne. Having sided against the throne in the Civil War they were concerned at what fate might befall them should Charles' son, Charles, return.

In fact, two local men were instrumental in organising the return of Charles from exile in Europe. This meeting was vital in establishing contact between the army and the monarch in exile that led directly to Charles returning and reclaiming his throne. Morice was knighted for his role and appointed as Secretary of State. Grenville was elevated to the Earl of Bath and Governor of Plymouth.

Plymouth Citadel Drake's Island became something of a makeshift prison island for those who whose loyalty was felt to be questionable. The clergy of St. Andrews' Church were placed there for refusing to use the new Book of Common Prayer that was required to be used by all Anglican churches. Various non-conformist preachers were also taken to the island or to Exeter gaol. A second war with the Dutch broke out in the s under the Stuart king.

This war went badly for the English but its consequences were significant for Plymouth and in a more positive way. First of all, the King's officials recognised the need for adequate defence for England's principal ports. This became critical after the Dutch sailed up the Medway and destroyed the English Fleet in the Thames.

Plymouth had already been earmarked for upgrading its fort into a full blown Citadel on a far larger scale than had ever been seen in Plymouth. Virtually the entire Hoe was signed over to the King with little hesitation perhaps as they sought to avoid a conflict with a king who might yet bear a grudge against their actions towards his father.

The belief persisted for many years that the fortification was built overlooking Plymouth to ensure that it could never rebel against the Crown again and it was noted that a large number of the cannon emplacements looked out over the port of Plymouth rather than out to sea. Be that as it may, the principle justification was to protect Plymouth from the Dutch and also the French who were once more turning on Protestants with greater vehemency.

The English took control of what was to become New York but were kept out of the lucrative nutmeg and pepper islands of the Dutch East Indies. In the short term this was regarded as a disaster for English traders but over time, the North American colonies and New York in particular would prove to become important trading destinations in their own right. It also meant that Plymouth would continue to play a vital role in communicating and trading with the North American and Caribbean colonies.

Francis Drake had conducted many of his successful campaigns with the help of what were called Huguenots. The Protestant bastion of Plymouth had traded with the Huguenots who were often the merchants and mariners in French ports like La Rochelle.

The Seventeenth Century had seen Huguenot influence and political power undermined and assaulted by successive French Catholic kings. These included pogroms and whole sale slaughter of Protestants living in France. Many of these Huguenots decided to flee to safety and a large number arrived in Plymouth.

This was almost certainly due to existing trading connections between Huguenot families and the port of Plymouth. The s saw successive boatloads fleeing persecution and seeking sanctuary in Plymouth. A large Huguenot community settled in Plymouth with another at Stonehouse.

These entrepreneurial and often highly skilled merchants and traders found themselves at ease in their new homes. They thrived in their new surroundings and provided new opportunities and contacts to the traders and merchants of Plymouth. French language services were held at St.

George's Chapel and at the old friary on Southside Street as the Protestants sought to continue their faith in their mother language. Their presence and their persecution was a reminder to the people of Plymouth of what might lay in store for them should Catholicism ever make a return to England. They and presumably the Huguenots were therefore extremely nervous upon hearing of the death of Charles II and the accession of his openly Catholic brother, James II in Plymouth was the first town to declare its support to him when his fleet sailed into Plymouth Sound.

An English ship in Sutton harbour became the first English ship to fly his colours from its mast and the Citadel became the first English fortification to switch its allegiance to him. William would go on to have a profound effect on the fortunes of Plymouth but for the time being his fleet and army sailed on to Brixham where they landed unopposed. The Governor of Plymouth, Sir John Grenville and the Earl of Bath and the person who had done so much to see the Stuarts return to the throne, was charged by James to hold Exeter and block the advancing Dutch army.

The Earl of Bath claimed that he was too weak to prevent their advance and stood aside and allowed the invading army to pass unopposed. In reality, the Earl of Bath had become disillusioned with James' rule and was happy to see him replaced by a more virile king. William was a renowned anti-catholic fighter and soon England joined in his campaigns against the Catholic French and her allies.

James had fled to France to seek support in regaining his throne. Plymouth was about to become the beneficiary of this renewed period of hostility. William had identified Plymouth as being the perfect port to create the ships that he would require to fight in his anti-French crusade. Ship-building had long taken place in and around Plymouth but it had always been by private companies and contractors.

William proposed building a purpose built dock for the building and maintaining of warships. It was the first stone built dock in the world and it illustrated a growing professionalisation and awareness of the needs of the military and of the navy in particular.

The English had been embarrassed by the previous Dutch attack on the Medway back in It was believed that Plymouth was located far enough away from mainland Europe to afford it some added security. Plans for the dockyard were drawn up in There was some debate about whether it should be centred on Oreston to the West of the city or along the Hamoaze and the River Tamar. The former was nearer to the existing main settlement at Plymouth but the latter had more scope for expansion and for sheltering large numbers of ships.

Eventually, building work began in The King personally came to Plymouth to inspect its construction. It took the name Plymouth Dock despite being some distance from Plymouth on the Hamoaze on the Tamar. Later it would take the name of Devonport. Construction of the first dock was completed in but it had only begun a process that would result in it becoming the largest dockyard in the world by the end of the Nineteenth Century. The first ship built was the Looe which was launched in The dock still exists and is located next to Mutton Cove.

Construction of ships would continue there for the next three centuries. The last warship built in Devonport was the Scylla which was launched in Interestingly, the Scylla was deliberately sunk off the nearby Cornish beach of Whitsand to provide a recreational and study wreck and so can still be visited - if you are a diver! Plymouth Dock One further advance for the people of Plymouth was William's change in the law regarding billeting troops.

Being a port, Plymouth had often had to entertain large forces moving through it en route to some foreign battlefield somewhere. As has already been mentioned previously it could end in disaster when billeted troops brought disease with them. Even if the soldiers were not sick, it was regarded as a painful and unpopular burden by the local population.

In a highly popular move that illustrated the professionalism and wisdom of William in raising and maintaining an efficient army he ordered that English troops should follow the Dutch example in requiring them to reside in purpose made barracks or, if these were not available, at inns and hotels.

This started the process whereby garrisons were built to service the garrisoning or moving of troops to the expanding Plymouth Dock. Extensive fortifications with ditches and ramparts were added to defend the docks - especially during the Seven Years War - evidence of which existence can still be seen in parts of Devonport Park.

These were served by a series of six barracks built to house the defending garrison and could be defended in their own right. Each barrack block housed three to four hundred men and officers. The navy still persisted in relying on decommissioned hulks lying out in the Hamoaze for its accommodation needs.

These were unpopular with the men due to the dark, cramped conditions that were difficult to keep clean. Disease often broke out in the confined spaces but for the admiralty they had the advantage of being very cheap and flexible for their needs and requirements. It was easy to add or take away hulks as required. These hulks were also used to house prisoners during time of war for the same reason. The Eddystone Rocks The Winstanley Lighthouse The Eddystone Rocks off the coast of Plymouth were a notoriously dangerous patch of rocks that caught many a ship out by their presence in open sea.

As a result, the area around them was strewn with shipwrecks. As the navy identified Plymouth as a primary base, steps were taken to protect the approaches to the port by building a lighthouse on the exposed rocks. Indeed, this was the first rock lighthouse as opposed to one built on land ever constructed in Britain.

The first person to take an interest was a Plymouth merchant by the name of Henry Winstanley. He had personally lost two of his own ships on these rocks en route to port and was so incensed he was determined to construct a suitable lighthouse to protect his and everyone else's ships. Work began on the project in in what was something of a maritime folly. He created an octagonal structure of granite and wood reinforced with iron stanchions.

It had a lead domed, octagonal glass latnert at the top and an external staircase. The Smeaton Lighthouse Bizarrely, whilst working on the project a French privateer landed on the rocks and seized Winstanley as a hostage of war. However, when the French king heard of the seizure he ordered Winstanley's immediate release. Apparently he remarked 'that France was at war with England and not with humanity'. He realised that French shipping in the Channel would equally benefit from a light house warning of the existence of the rocks.

Sheepishly, Winstanley was returned by the French to complete the project. The lighthouse worked for about 5 years but was battered by the harsh conditions and required constant repair. It was whilst making some minor repairs and additions to the structure that Winstanley was washed off the Eddystone rocks with his crew of workers and dragged out to sea never to be seen again.

The Douglas Lighthouse A second lighthouse was constructed in by John Rudyard which lasted a more impressive forty years until it burnt down in John Smeaton was contracted to build a more substantial stone replacement and undertook a massive building programme to construct the lighthouse.

Smeaton's pioneering design used hydraulic lime mortar which set under water and dovetailed stone construction which had the added advantage that it created a smooth surface in the masonry, preventing the lashing waves from getting any purchase on angled brickwork. It was completed in and remained there for over a century and was then only replaced by a more modern structure designed by James Douglass in Smeaton's design was so successful that it provided the engineering principles used by all subsequent rock lighthouses.

Smeaton's tower was moved to Plymouth Hoe where it is still a recognisable landmark in the city. The current lighthouse is no longer manned permanently but it is essentially the same building as the one built in which itself used many of the techniques and principles learned from John Smeaton's lighthouse. Georgian Plymouth Plymouth Fish Market The fortunes of Plymouth and particularly of Plymouth Dock were now irrevocably linked to the success of the Royal Navy and the fortunes of what became known as the British Empire after the Act of Union in formally united the Crowns of Scotland and England.

The commercial port of Plymouth continued to import sugar and tobacco but Plymouth's location far from the centres of the burgeoning industrial revolution and particularly the lack of any nearby coal deposits meant that it could not compete in this field as effectively with the likes of Bristol or Liverpool. Plymouth was still Britain's fourth busiest port but it was increasingly clear that it was going to be the military side of Plymouth's economy that would provide its sustained growth in the future.

Plymouth Dock The Eighteenth Century was a bright one for Britain's expanding commercial and maritime ventures. The East India Company was striking it rich in Asia and bringing back its proceeds. The industrial revolution was in full swing allowing Britain a competitive advantage over all other countries on the planet.

It was capable of producing the best quality goods at rock bottom prices. The technological advantages of the industrial revolution found their way into the weaponry of the British Army and the Royal Navy giving them increasing advantages on the battlefields and oceans. This technology fed its way into the construction techniques used at Plymouth Dock where all new Royal Ships were furnished with copper bottoms to keep the hulls cleaner and allow the ships to maintain higher speeds for longer periods than all of their competitor naval ships.

In short there was a virtuous circle in the fortunes of Britain's commercial and maritime exploits that in turn allowed Plymouth to become a centre of excellence through investment in its facilities and in attracting the very best craftsmen from miles around to the opportunities presented. It became a world leader in the construction and repair of the latest state-of-the-art ship technology for the world's pre-eminent maritime power.

Admiral Anson pioneered the tactic of replenishing ships at sea when he set off to circumnavigate the World from to Victuals including livestock, water and ammunition were loaded up in Plymouth and sent out to rendezvous with Anson at predetermined points.

These supply ships could then update the authorities to his progress. They even pioneered ship to ship transfers at sea which greatly increased the reach and range of Royal Naval ships. This skill would come in particularly useful for blockading enemy ports during the wars of the second half of the Eighteenth Century. The Wars of the Austrian Succession from to and the Seven Years War from to provided Plymouth with massive contracts and requirements of seamen.

The Bank of England allowed Britain to borrow money on an unprecedented level which allowed it to take on and even beat the far larger French Kingdom. Much of this money was spent in Plymouth in the construction of a fleet of unparalleled size and sophistication. The tiny dock built at the time of King William was dwarfed by the expanding facilities required. Activity even spilled over to the other side of the Tamar as Torpoint and the Lynher provided berths and facilities for the growing Dock.

Plymouth Dock was in danger of outgrowing the 'Old Plymouth' and certainly left the third town of Stonehouse in the dust. Plymouth and its Citadel, No less an authority than Dr Samuel Johnson noticed how the people of Plymouth were 'stirred by jealousy' at the rising fortunes of Plymouth Dock.

He visited the area with his old friend and local painter Joshua Reynolds. Although from Plympton, Joshua Reynolds was able to rise to become the founding President of the Royal Academy thanks to the increasing wealth of local families and numbers of aristocratic sons passing through the area on naval service.

He went on to paint the portraits of many of the local gentry and high born sailors. When's the best time to travel between New Plymouth and Nelson? Most carriers on the Kiwi. Order the search results by the best, cheapest, or fastest route, or find the cheapest outbound and return combination in the pricing table.

What flights operate between New Plymouth and Nelson? Traveling between New Plymouth and Nelson, you can choose between direct nonstop flights or flights with one or more stops. You can select the number of stops on your journey, including an overnight stopover, and the duration of the stopover. What's more, you can also select where you want to have your stopover. Want to say "Hi" to a friend in another city en route to your destination? Or fancy a quick round of shopping?

Go Multi-City or Nomad and add places to your search that you wish to visit. How many airports are there near New Plymouth? How many airports are there near Nelson? What time do nonstop direct flights between New Plymouth and Nelson depart? What time do nonstop direct flights between New Plymouth and Nelson arrive? What time do flights between New Plymouth and Nelson depart?

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Hlta jobs near me Later, it connection take the name plymouth Drake's Island in his honour. While I don't know much about how that season went, I do know a lot the best the players. Go Multi-City or Nomad and add places to your search that you wish to visit. Years of warfare turned Plymouth into a hub of frenzied activity as sailors, soldiers and marines passed through the city to fight in ever increasingly exotic parts of Europe and the wider World. He and Tom Miller teamed up for one of the best pitching duos in plymouth history.
The best connection plymouth Plymouth was still Britain's fourth busiest port but it was increasingly clear that it was going to be the military side of Plymouth's economy that would provide its sustained growth in the future. The main airport in New Plymouth is New Plymouth. Plymouth's Black Community Being a port, Plymouth would have been far more accustomed to seeing non-Caucasian faces than most other towns in England. The victory best connection plymouth the total and confirmed that England was taking its place amongst the premier powers of Europe. The people of Plymouth depended upon control of Drake's Island to allow ships to come in under the cover of darkness and unload supplies at Millbay before disappearing before daylight in feats of remarkable seamanship. Tom Miller threw a no-hitter the best connection plymouth the Big Red to squeak by in the district semifinal game. Jobs for va further information on how you can manage and set your cookie preferences, please see our Cookie Policy.
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The need to enter the Devonport terminus from the west end, through a residential area, posed particular difficulties, as did the tidal mud inlets in the southern section. A number of improvements were required, and goods traffic not subject to the conditions commenced on 12 May.

Passenger traffic started on 1 June Now they arrived at Devonport, made into a through station, and ran through Plymouth from west to east, continuing to call at Plymouth North Road and once again at Mutley, and turning into the new Friary passenger terminus. However the broad gauge was to be abolished, and in a massive operation in May the gauge was converted. The rise of street-running passenger tramways in Plymouth from posed a competitive threat, and this accelerated when electric trams were introduced in The LSWR responded by introducing railmotors , single passenger coaches with an integrated steam power unit, on 26 September , with additional halts opened on 1 November that year.

The service proved popular, and in some cases the railmotors themselves were replaced by conventional trains because of capacity problems. Nonetheless street-running public passenger transport achieved gradual dominance, and the LSWR found that outer suburban services were more beneficial.

After some considerable delay it took active steps to do so, obtaining authorisation by the Bere Alston and Calstock Light Railway Order of 12 July to build the connecting line, and to operate the ECMR line but not the incline to the Tamar quay as a passenger line; the gauge was to be 3 ft 6in. A further Light Railway Order of 12 October authorised the adoption of the standard gauge on the line, implying conversion of the existing East Cornwall Mineral line. The conversion of the gauge of the old ECMR line had taken only two days.

The ECMR had used a rope-worked incline to reach the Tamar quay at Calstock; the incline was abandoned and a wagon lift was provided to move wagons to the quay. However the goods and mineral traffic was disappointing. Themed cruises offered by the company include Pirate Adventures, as well as jazz and sunset tours.

Harbor ferries transport visitors to the Cornwall side of the harbor to Mount Edgecombe Country Park, where an elegant estate house and formal gardens can be seen, or to the twin Cornish villages of Cawsand and Kingsand, quaint towns with a history of smuggling in their past. Deep sea fishing expeditions depart from the harbor, and opportunities for paddle boarding, sailing, kayaking, and scuba diving are also available.

And Plymouth Gin has its own unique connection to the Mayflower also. Originally constructed as a monastery dating to the s, the structure currently has a swanky upstairs cocktail lounge, a long room with magnificent soaring ceilings that was once the refectory where the monks took their meals.

Seafood is of course abundant with menu choices at the many restaurants lining the harbor including local fish like whiting, sprat, and plaice. Be sure to sample Cornish pasties, savory pies filled with meats and vegetables shaped into a semi-circle with crimped edges. Continue to 5 of 11 below. Legend has it that Sir Francis Drake looked out on the passing Spanish Armada from here as he enjoyed a game of lawn bowling.

Only a plate of glass separates viewers from sharks, green turtles, barracudas and rays swimming in huge tanks that visitors walk both through and under. Open air events like live music are offered as well as rotating art exhibitions, and the Ocean Studios located at the Yard is a creative hub where you can be paired with local makers to fashion your own ceramics, jewelry, and mosaics.

Many of the centuries-old buildings lining the streets of the Barbican now house unique shops, including The House that Jack Built, a quirky arcade with meandering passageways complete with water fountains and witches and gnomes rotating on poles. Shops range from purveyors of handmade chocolates to vintage fashions. K, and elsewhere, as well as the Wampanoag tribe of Native Americans in Massachusetts.

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